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Classification of large-scale integrated circuits

更新時間: 2020-03-04 12:08:31

Today, the world ’s integrated large-scale integrated circuit factories (Integrated Circuit, hereinafter referred to as IC, Taiwan is referred to as wafer fabs) are mainly concentrated in a few developed countries and regions, such as the United States, Japan, Western Europe, Singapore, and Taiwan. However, in recent years, due to a series of events such as the earthquake, financial crisis, and government change in Taiwan, the Taiwan island, which has a lack of resources, a small market, and a floating heart, has become more turbulent, which has led to a relocation of wafer fabs. Trend. Of course, the mainland of the motherland, with its vast territory, abundant resources, huge potential market, and abundant supply of human resources, has naturally become its preferred destination.

The products produced by the fab actually include two parts: wafer slicing (also referred to as wafer) and ultra-large-scale integrated circuit chips (can be referred to as chips). The former is just a smooth round sheet like a mirror. In a strict sense, it has no practical application value, but it is only a raw material for further processing of the chip production process. The latter is the final product directly applied in many industries such as computer, electronics, communication, etc. It can include CPU, memory unit and other various professional application chips.

Large-scale integrated circuits: LSI (Large Scale Integration), usually refers to an integrated circuit containing logic gates ranging from 100 to 9999 gates (or 1000 to 99999 components), and integrating more than 1,000 electronic components on one chip . An integrated circuit (called an integrated circuit by RTHK) is a miniature electronic device or component. A certain process is used to interconnect the transistors, diodes, resistors, capacitors, inductors and other components and wiring required in a circuit to make a small or several small semiconductor wafers or dielectric substrates, and then package them in a tube Inside the case, it becomes a miniature structure with the required circuit function; all the components have been integrated into a structure. It can be represented by the letter "IC" (also with the letter symbol "N", etc.).

integrated circuits

Classification of large-scale integrated circuits

Classified by functional structure

Integrated circuits can be divided into three categories: analog integrated circuits, digital integrated circuits, and digital / analog hybrid integrated circuits according to their functions and structures.

Analog integrated circuits, also known as linear circuits, are used to generate, amplify, and process various analog signals (referring to signals whose amplitudes change over time. For example, audio signals from semiconductor radios, tape signals from VCRs, etc.), and their input and output signals. Proportional relationship. Digital integrated circuits are used to generate, amplify, and process various digital signals (referring to signals with discrete values in time and amplitude. For example, VCD and DVD playback audio signals and video signals).

Classified by production process

Integrated circuits can be divided into semiconductor integrated circuits and film integrated circuits according to the manufacturing process.

Film integrated circuits are classified into thick film integrated circuits and thin film integrated circuits.

Classification by level of integration

Integrated circuits can be divided into small-scale integrated circuits, medium-scale integrated circuits, large-scale integrated circuits, ultra-large-scale integrated circuits, ultra-large-scale integrated circuits, and large-scale integrated circuits according to the level of integration.

Different classification by conductivity type

Integrated circuits can be divided into bipolar integrated circuits and unipolar integrated circuits according to the conductive type. They are both digital integrated circuits.

The manufacturing process of bipolar integrated circuits is complicated and the power consumption is large, which means that integrated circuits include TTL, ECL, HTL, LST-TL, STTL and other types. The unipolar integrated circuit has a simple manufacturing process and low power consumption, and is easy to be made into a large-scale integrated circuit. The representative integrated circuits include CMOS, NMOS, and PMOS.

Classified by use

Integrated circuits can be divided into TV integrated circuits, audio integrated circuits, video player integrated circuits, video recorder integrated circuits, computer (microcomputer) integrated circuits, electronic piano integrated circuits, communication integrated circuits, and camera integrated circuits. Circuits, remote control integrated circuits, language integrated circuits, integrated circuits for alarms, and various application-specific integrated circuits.

1. TV integrated circuits include line, field scan integrated circuits, mid-amp integrated circuits, sound integrated circuits, color decoding integrated circuits, AV / TV conversion integrated circuits, switching power supply integrated circuits, remote control integrated circuits, and Liyin decoding integrated circuits , Picture-in-picture processing integrated circuits, microprocessor (CPU) integrated circuits, memory integrated circuits, etc.

2. Audio integrated circuits include AM / FM high-IF circuit, stereo decoding circuit, audio preamplifier circuit, audio operational amplifier integrated circuit, audio power amplifier integrated circuit, surround sound processing integrated circuit, level driver integrated circuit, electronic volume Control integrated circuit, time delay reverberation integrated circuit, electronic switch integrated circuit, etc.

3. Integrated circuits for DVD players include system control integrated circuits, video encoding integrated circuits, MPEG decoding integrated circuits, and audio

Signal processing integrated circuits, sound effects integrated circuits, RF signal processing integrated circuits, digital signal processing integrated circuits, servo integrated circuits, motor drive integrated circuits, etc.

4. Integrated circuits for video recorders include system control integrated circuits, servo integrated circuits, drive integrated circuits, audio processing integrated circuits, and video processing integrated circuits.

By application area

Integrated circuits can be divided into standard general-purpose integrated circuits and application-specific integrated circuits according to application fields.

Divided by shape

Integrated circuits can be divided into round (metal case transistor package type, generally suitable for high power), flat type (good stability, small size) and dual in-line type according to the shape.

ラベル: integrated circuits


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